Commit bd36a5f4 authored by minute's avatar minute
Browse files

some text and type tweaks

parent 765473e5
......@@ -30,5 +30,5 @@ SW84,1,Apem,DM01
U1,1,Microchip,ATMEGA32U4-AU
U2,1,Texas Instruments,TPS61185RGET
U3,1,Microchip,MCP1700T-3302E/TT
U4,1,STMicroelectronics,USBLC6-2SC6
U4,1,ST,USBLC6-2SC6
Y1,1,Abracon,ABM8AIG-16.000MHz-4-T
......@@ -17,5 +17,5 @@ SW6 ,1,C&K,KMR221GLFS
SW7 ,1,Apem,DM01
U1 ,1,Microchip,ATMEGA32U2-AU
U2 ,1,Texas Instruments,TLV75533PDBVR
U3 ,1,STMicroelectronics,USBLC6-2SC6
U3 ,1,ST,USBLC6-2SC6
Y1 ,1,Abracon,ABM8AIG-16.000MHz-4-T
......@@ -14,5 +14,5 @@ SW6 ,1,Diptronics,PTLP2
SW7 ,1,Apem,DM01
U1 ,1,Microchip,ATMEGA32U2-AU
U2 ,1,Texas Instruments,TLV75533PDBVR
U3 ,1,STMicroelectronics,USBLC6-2SC6
U3 ,1,ST,USBLC6-2SC6
Y1 ,1,Abracon,ABM8AIG-16.000MHz-4-T
This diff is collapsed.
\documentclass{book}
\usepackage[a5paper,left=2cm,right=3cm,top=2cm,bottom=2cm]{geometry}
\usepackage[a5paper,left=2cm,right=2.5cm,top=2cm,bottom=2.5cm]{geometry}
\usepackage{graphicx}
\usepackage{microtype}
\usepackage{parskip}
......@@ -10,6 +10,7 @@
\usepackage{makecell}
\usepackage{longtable}
\usepackage[final]{pdfpages}
\usepackage{ragged2e}
\setmainfont[Ligatures=TeX]{Inter}
......@@ -28,7 +29,7 @@
\author{MNT Research GmbH}
\date{2020-10-31}
\begin{document}
\begin{document}\RaggedRight
\includepdf{_static/cover-front2.pdf}
......
......@@ -59,7 +59,7 @@ U-Boot itself has to be compiled with the board support files for Reform. This i
The build process combines the following files into ``flash.bin``:
- Synopsys DDR4 controller calibration firmware ``lpddr4_pmu_train_*.bin`` (no source available)
- Synopsys DDR4 calibration firmware ``lpddr4_pmu_train_*.bin`` (no source available)
- Cadence HDMI controller firmare ``signed_hdmi_imx8m.bin`` (no source available, optional)
- ARM trusted firmware "TF-A" ``bl31-iMX8MQ.bin`` (open source)
- The u-boot binary (open source)
......@@ -69,7 +69,7 @@ U-Boot needs 2 files to boot Linux:
- The Linux kernel itself, named ``Image``.
- The device tree blob (DTB), which depends on the CPU module. For i.MX8MQ, this is called ``imx8mq-mnt-reform2.dtb``. The device tree is a data structure that lists the addresses of and parameters for all the devices in the system that Linux needs to initialize drivers for. The source for this file is ``imx8mq-mnt-reform2.dts``, and it is compiled to the DTB as part of the Linux kernel tree (where it resides in (``arch/arm64/boot``).
Theoretically, you can boot other operating systems besides Linux, such as FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD or anything else that supports the i.MX8MQ SoC. This handbook covers only the Linux operating system, but you can -- if drivers exist -- boot any of these operating systems from U-Boot.
Theoretically, you can boot other operating systems besides Linux, such as FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD or anything else that supports the i.MX8MQ SoC. This handbook covers only the Linux operating system, but you can --- if drivers exist --- boot any of these operating systems from U-Boot.
The default boot script will load the DTB and Kernel Image from the SD card using the following command:
......
......@@ -67,6 +67,6 @@ You can use the ALSA API directly or higher level APIs such as PulseAudio, Jack
Languages
---------
While you can easily write programs in C and C++ -- and the Linux kernel and most layers on top of it are still written in C -- you can also use Rust, Go, SBCL, Haskell, Java or scripting languages such as JavaScript, Python, Ruby on MNT Reform. All of these have first-class aarch64 support.
While you can easily write programs in C and C++ --- and the Linux kernel and most layers on top of it are still written in C --- you can also use Rust, Go, SBCL, Haskell, Java or scripting languages such as JavaScript, Python, Ruby on MNT Reform. All of these have first-class aarch64 support.
Applications that use web browser engines (such as Electron) can disappoint in terms of performance on MNT Reform. Programs using native toolkits will run faster, use less memory and provide a better user experience.
......@@ -22,13 +22,13 @@ The keyboard has a built-in OLED display for interaction with the System Control
.. image:: _static/illustrations/oled2-callouts.png
You can see detailled battery information including the estimated total charge percentage on the Battery Status screen reachable through the OLED menu. Each cell icon corresponds to one of the eight battery cells. The leftmost group of four icons represent the battery pack on the left side of the device, and the top icon in each group represents the leftmost cell in each pack -- assuming you look at MNT Reform when flipped on its back and the battery closer towards you.
You can see detailled battery information including the estimated total charge percentage on the Battery Status screen reachable through the OLED menu. Each cell icon corresponds to one of the eight battery cells. The leftmost group of four icons represent the battery pack on the left side of the device, and the top icon in each group represents the leftmost cell in each pack --- assuming you look at MNT Reform when flipped on its back and the battery closer towards you.
Trackball
---------
.. image:: _static/illustrations/6t-callouts.png
The trackball works like a three-button mouse. Rolling the ball will move the cursor in the same direction. In addition to the standard three mouse buttons (left, middle, right), the trackball also has two "Wheel Mode" buttons. Holding down either while moving the ball up and down will scroll the currently focused content.
The trackball works like a three-button mouse. Rolling the ball will move the cursor in the same direction. In addition to the standard three mouse buttons (left, middle, right), the trackball also has two *Wheel Mode* buttons. Holding down either while moving the ball up and down will scroll the currently focused content.
Trackpad
--------
......
......@@ -4,18 +4,18 @@ Linux Basics
The Console and Shell
---------------------
With the provided SD card inserted, MNT Reform will boot to a Linux console, which is a pure text interface (opposed to a graphical windowing environment). This is so that you have a chance to learn about the lowest level of interaction with the operating system before moving on to more fully featured desktops. If something goes wrong, you can always go back to this level and fix things -- if you know a few basics of Linux administration.
With the provided SD card inserted, MNT Reform will boot to a Linux console, which is a pure text interface (opposed to a graphical windowing environment). This is so that you have a chance to learn about the lowest level of interaction with the operating system before moving on to more fully featured desktops. If something goes wrong, you can always go back to this level and fix things --- if you know a few basics of Linux administration.
After logging in on the console, you are in control of a **shell**. The default shell is called ``bash`` [#]_, but there are many other shells available. You can use the shell to type in commands for your computer to execute, but also to write programs (scripts) that combine commands to do more complex tasks. For example, this handbook is generated by a ``bash`` script combining a few text and graphics related tools.
This chapter will introduce you to the basics of exploring and administering your MNT Reform system using the shell first and then a graphical desktop. Even on a desktop you will find yourself launching shells to quickly perform tasks all the time. It is worth to invest the time to learn these basics, because you will be able to examine and solve most problems by yourself, rather than relying only on graphical user interfaces that -- while convenient -- can obscure the system that lies beneath.
This chapter will introduce you to the basics of exploring and administering your MNT Reform system using the shell first and then a graphical desktop. Even on a desktop you will find yourself launching shells to quickly perform tasks all the time. It is worth to invest the time to learn these basics, because you will be able to examine and solve most problems by yourself, rather than relying only on graphical user interfaces that --- while convenient --- can obscure the system that lies beneath.
.. [#] The "GNU Bourne-Again Shell".
Set a Root Password
-------------------
The most powerful user in the system is ``root``. When logged in as ``root``, you can modify but also destroy any file in the system. To prevent others from logging in as ``root``, you should protect the account with a password. In the shell, you execute all commands by typing them in and pressing **Enter**. To set your password, execute this command:
The most powerful user in the system is ``root``. When logged in as ``root``, you can modify but also destroy any file in the system. To prevent others from logging in as ``root``, you should protect the account with a password. In the shell, you execute all commands by typing them in and pressing **ENTER**. To set your password, execute this command:
.. code-block:: none
......@@ -23,7 +23,7 @@ The most powerful user in the system is ``root``. When logged in as ``root``, yo
The ``passwd`` command will ask you for a new password two times, but will not display it while typing (so it cannot be gleaned by onlookers).
During normal Linux usage you will rarely want to be ``root`` -- only when performing changes to the system configuration, which includes adding or removing users or software and controlling background services. Instead, you should create a less privileged user account for yourself.
During normal Linux usage you will rarely want to be ``root`` --- only when performing changes to the system configuration, which includes adding or removing users or software and controlling background services. Instead, you should create a less privileged user account for yourself.
Create a New User and Password
------------------------------
......@@ -35,7 +35,7 @@ In order to add such a new user account to the system, log in as ``root`` (you a
adduser kim
The ``adduser`` command will ask you for a password and a few questions that you can skip by just pressing **Enter**.
The ``adduser`` command will ask you for a password and a few questions that you can skip by just pressing **ENTER**.
If you want to change the password for the user kim later, you can
use the ``passwd`` command as before:
......@@ -49,7 +49,7 @@ Logging In and Out
You can log out by pressing *CTRL+D*. Alternatively, you can type ``exit``.
When logged out, you will see the login prompt. Enter the username that you added with ``adduser`` and press **Enter**. Next, enter your password (it is not displayed). Press **Enter** to complete the login.
When logged out, you will see the login prompt. ENTER the username that you added with ``adduser`` and press **ENTER**. Next, enter your password (it is not displayed). Press **ENTER** to complete the login.
Sudo
----
......@@ -138,7 +138,7 @@ When you issued ``ls`` at the top of the filesystem (``/``) before, you might ha
*/sys* More live information from the kernel
*/dev* Device files providing access to hardware
*/run* Temporary files related to background services
*/tmp* Temporary files -- deleted on restarts
*/tmp* Temporary files --- deleted on restarts
*/srv* Files used by servers such as web servers
======== ==============================
......@@ -250,7 +250,7 @@ This will look for any occurence of the word "spice" in files in the current dir
Mount
+++++
The root directory ``/`` is actually a collection of filesystems "mounted" into one virtual filesystem. These can be located on different disks, media or even the network -- or be purely virtual in the case of ``/dev``, ``/proc`` or ``/sys``.
The root directory ``/`` is actually a collection of filesystems "mounted" into one virtual filesystem. These can be located on different disks, media or even the network --- or be purely virtual in the case of ``/dev``, ``/proc`` or ``/sys``.
For example, if you want to access files stored on a USB stick, you would first **mount** one of the filesystems contained on the USB stick into an empty directory called a **mount point**. This could be something like ``/mnt`` or ``/media/usb-stick``. Usually, desktop environments can help you to automatically mount removable media, but it's useful to know how to do the same process manually.
......@@ -276,7 +276,7 @@ To mount the partition on the stick at ``/mnt``, do:
sudo mount /dev/sda1 /mnt
If successful, this will -- in UNIX tradition -- output nothing, and you can find your files by navigating to ``/mnt`` with the usual commands.
If successful, this will --- in UNIX tradition --- output nothing, and you can find your files by navigating to ``/mnt`` with the usual commands.
Before unplugging your stick, you should **unmount** it. This makes sure any pending changes are written to the device (note that the command is ``umount``, not "unmount"):
......@@ -322,7 +322,7 @@ Work with Text Files
Most system configuration is done via by editing text files.
The two most common text editors among Linux users are ``vim`` and ``emacs``. Both of them have a steep learning curve, which can be rewarding to climb -- but the standard Reform system also ships with a simpler editor more suited for beginners. This editor is called ``micro``.
The two most common text editors among Linux users are ``vim`` and ``emacs``. Both of them have a steep learning curve, which can be rewarding to climb --- but the standard Reform system also ships with a simpler editor more suited for beginners. This editor is called ``micro``.
You can create, view, and edit files using the ``micro`` text
editor. To edit a file in the current directory named ``file.txt``, use:
......@@ -463,7 +463,7 @@ External Display
MNT Reform has an HDMI connector that has a different function depending on the installed CPU module. In case of the i.MX8MQ module you can connect an external HDMI displayo to this port. If you have the LS1028A module instead, the port carries PCIe signals to connect an external dock. The manual of for the LS1028A module will explain the details.
i.MX8MQ has two display engines, LCDIF and DCSS. In the default configuration, DCSS powers the internal display. If you want to use the external display, DCSS has to power HDMI instead. The internal display can then either be turned off or powered by LCDIF. At the time of writing, there is a limitation in i.MX8MQ that prevents the use of LCDIF together with PCIe devices like NVMe storage -- the LCDIF output will glitch when the disk is accessed over PCIe. This means that if you want to use a dual display setup with i.MX8MQ and MNT Reform, you have to run your system from eMMC or SD card instead. You can also use USB3.0 based storage externally.
i.MX8MQ has two display engines, LCDIF and DCSS. In the default configuration, DCSS powers the internal display. If you want to use the external display, DCSS has to power HDMI instead. The internal display can then either be turned off or powered by LCDIF. At the time of writing, there is a limitation in i.MX8MQ that prevents the use of LCDIF together with PCIe devices like NVMe storage --- the LCDIF output will glitch when the disk is accessed over PCIe. This means that if you want to use a dual display setup with i.MX8MQ and MNT Reform, you have to run your system from eMMC or SD card instead. You can also use USB3.0 based storage externally.
The HDMI controller of i.MX8MQ requires a piece of binary firmware that is signed by NXP and loaded by the CPU into the HDMI controller as part of the U-Boot bootloader. If you don't want to use HDMI, you can download an alternative version of U-Boot with the HDMI firmware stripped out at the MNT Reform website.
......@@ -508,27 +508,27 @@ You can start sway from the command line by executing the ``sway`` command:
sway
From now on, you can start a new terminal window by holding down the *Super* [#]_ key and pressing the *ENTER* key once (*Super+ENTER*).
From now on, you can start a new terminal window by holding down the *SUPER* [#]_ key and pressing the *ENTER* key once (*SUPER+ENTER*).
.. [#] *Super* is the key with the MNT Research logo next to the *HYPER* key.
.. [#] *SUPER* is the key with the MNT Research logo next to the *HYPER* key.
Tiling
++++++
When you press *Super+ENTER* multiple times to open several terminals, you'll notice that your currently open windows will be resized to accomodate for the new window. You can switch between these windows by holding the *Super* key and pressing the cursor (arrow) keys in the desired direction.
When you press *SUPER+ENTER* multiple times to open several terminals, you'll notice that your currently open windows will be resized to accomodate for the new window. You can switch between these windows by holding the *SUPER* key and pressing the cursor (arrow) keys in the desired direction.
If you keep adding windows, they will continuously shrink horizontally, but if you would rather have a window split vertically, you can. Use these shortcuts for deciding:
========= =========================
*Super+H* Split window horizontally
*Super+V* Split window vertically
*SUPER+H* Split window horizontally
*SUPER+V* Split window vertically
========= =========================
Note that the window is not split instantaneously. You're just telling Sway "The next time I create a window, put it below/beside my current window."
You may also use *Super+W* to tell Sway to use tabs. You can switch your tab using the same shortcuts for switching between windows.
You may also use *SUPER+W* to tell Sway to use tabs. You can switch your tab using the same shortcuts for switching between windows.
You can use *Super+ESC* to close the currently selected window.
You can use *SUPER+ESC* to close the currently selected window.
Workspaces
++++++++++
......@@ -536,9 +536,9 @@ Workspaces
You can change your active workspace with the number keys, for example:
=============== =================================
*Super+2* Go to workspace 2
*Super+1* Go back to workspace 1
*Super+SHIFT+5* Move active window to workspace 5
*SUPER+2* Go to workspace 2
*SUPER+1* Go back to workspace 1
*SUPER+SHIFT+5* Move active window to workspace 5
=============== =================================
You can open different spaces for different programs. For example, you might want to put your code-editing programs in workspace 1, a web browser in workspace 2, and some instant messaging programs in workspace 3.
......@@ -546,7 +546,7 @@ You can open different spaces for different programs. For example, you might wan
Launching Applications
++++++++++++++++++++++
Reform's sway configuration includes "rofi", a popup menu for launching an application by typing a part of its name. Press *Super+D* to open the menu. Over time, rofi will remember the applications you regularly launch and list them in the initial menu.
Reform's sway configuration includes "rofi", a popup menu for launching an application by typing a part of its name. Press *SUPER+D* to open the menu. Over time, rofi will remember the applications you regularly launch and list them in the initial menu.
Waybar
++++++
......@@ -560,10 +560,10 @@ Field Action on Click
=============== =========================================
Network Network Configuration (``connman-gtk``)
CPU/Disk System Monitor (``gnome-system-monitor``)
Memory Usage --
CPU Temperature --
Memory Usage ---
CPU Temperature ---
Volume Volume Control (``pavucontrol``)
Battery Gauge --
Battery Gauge ---
Clock Toggles between time and date
=============== =========================================
......@@ -573,8 +573,8 @@ Display Brightness
You can set the display's brightness using the ``brightnessctl`` command or, more conveniently, use one of these keyboard shortcuts:
========== ===========================
*Super+F1* Decrease display brightness
*Super+F2* Increase display brightness
*SUPER+F1* Decrease display brightness
*SUPER+F2* Increase display brightness
========== ===========================
Config File
......@@ -595,17 +595,17 @@ Launch the GNOME desktop from the Linux console by typing:
gnome-session
After a while, the label "Activities" will appear in the top-left corner of the screen. Click this label to reveal the Activities overview. Alternatively, you can press the *Super* key to open this overview. From here, you can launch applications by typing (a part of) their name. You can drag and drop applications that you commonly use into the "dock" on the left. Applications that are already running are displayed in the dock, too. Clicking on them will bring them to the foreground.
After a while, the label "Activities" will appear in the top-left corner of the screen. Click this label to reveal the Activities overview. Alternatively, you can press the *SUPER* key to open this overview. From here, you can launch applications by typing (a part of) their name. You can drag and drop applications that you commonly use into the "dock" on the left. Applications that are already running are displayed in the dock, too. Clicking on them will bring them to the foreground.
GNOME supports a range of keyboard shortcuts to speed up working with the desktop:
================= ===========================
*Super* Open Activities
*Super+TAB* Go to next window
*Super+SHIFT+TAB* Go to previous window
*SUPER* Open Activities
*SUPER+TAB* Go to next window
*SUPER+SHIFT+TAB* Go to previous window
*CTRL+ALT+T* Launch a terminal
*Super+PGUP* Workspace above
*Super+PGDN* Workspace below
*SUPER+PGUP* Workspace above
*SUPER+PGDN* Workspace below
================= ===========================
GNOME displays system status icons in the top-right corner of the screen. You can click these icons to access network configuration, see the battery status and log out or shut down the computer.
......
......@@ -17,7 +17,7 @@ The case consists of the following 5 parts. All parts except the bottom plate ar
4. **Screen Front:** housing speakers and providing display bezel
5. **Bottom Plate:** the clear acrylic bottom lid
For easy (dis)assembly, Reform uses only M2 screws with Phillips-head everywhere -- with one exception: M4x5 on the top half of the hinges.
For easy (dis)assembly, Reform uses only M2 screws with Phillips-head everywhere --- with one exception: M4x5 on the top half of the hinges.
When closed, the case is held shut by four neodymium bar magnets which are located in the front edge of the screen enclosure and another four in the front of the main box (8 in total).
......
Preface
+++++++
Early in the history of the MNT Reform project, when we were still working out of apartments, we made 13 laptops mostly by hand for hardly a dozen adventurous beta testers. These were much more primitive manifestations of the device that you received today, based on an older processor and a mixture of 3D printed and aluminum parts. But they already came with an "Operator Handbook", which consisted of about 30 manually bound pages of schematics and basic instructions for handling the prototype. It was merely a rough sketch of the book that you are reading now.
Early in the MNT Reform project, we made --- working in the kitchen --- 13 prototypes for us and hardly a dozen adventurous people. These were much more primitive predecessors of the laptop that you received today, based on an older processor and a wild mixture of materials. Each already came with an *Operator Handbook*: 30 manually bound pages of schematics and instructions for handling the prototype. It was but a rough sketch of the book that you are reading now.
The original "Operator Handbook" turned out to be a great conversation aid and icebreaker when talking about MNT Reform with other people. We made the new handbook that you're now holding in your hands in the same spirit: to make your laptop more approachable, understandable, but also more discussible. Armed with this book, you can look up the parts that make up your MNT Reform when you take it apart, you can (re)learn the basics of the Linux shell, and you can scrawl in your own ideas.
In a world where electronics are becoming ever more secretive, MNT Reform and this book appeared against many odds -- but they are not holy artifacts. They are meant to be taken apart, studied, discussed, hacked, improved.
We made this for you. Make it your own.
Lukas F. Hartmann, Berlin-Friedenau, 2021-01-20
The original handbook turned out to be an icebreaker and conversation aid when talking about MNT Reform with other people. We wrote this new handbook in the same spirit: to make your MNT Reform more approachable, understandable, but also more discussible. The book will be your companion when taking MNT Reform apart and learning the basics of using the machine. And you can scrawl in your own ideas.
At a time when electronics are becoming ever more secretive, MNT Reform and this book appear against many odds --- but they are not sacred artifacts. They are meant to be taken apart, discussed, hacked, built upon. Make it your own.
Safety
======
Before you get started with your MNT Reform, please read these safety instructions carefully to prevent harm to yourself and your belongings.
Before you get started with your MNT Reform, please read these safety instructions carefully to prevent harm to yourself and your environment.
**Electrical Shock and Fire Hazard:** Please be extra careful while and after opening the case of the device. MNT Reform uses 8 batteries in series. When fully charged, these combine to a voltage of almost 29V. The individual battery cells can deliver a lot of current. Do not touch the metal pins of the battery holders with metal tools.
Before servicing anything on the inside, **make sure that the wall power is unplugged and remove all battery cells.**
**Before servicing anything on the inside, make sure that the wall power is unplugged and remove all battery cells.**
**Damage to Hearing:** The headphone output of MNT Reform can be forced to extreme volume which may damage your hearing if you are not careful. Please make sure to set the volume to 30% or less before wearing headphones connected to MNT Reform and adjust the volume to a comfortable level.
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